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1006. Introduction to Native Studies

A survey course that introduces students to the discipline of Native Studies. Its purpose is to increase the student's understanding and sensitivity towards the past and present experience of Native peoples. Using both oral and written records, the course will examine pre-contact history and culture, the influences of colonialism in the post-contact era, and contemporary issues. 6 credit hours.

1106. Mi'kmaq Language
This course is designed for students with little or no knowledge of the language. The aims are listening comprehension and basic oral expression. 6 credit hours.

1116. Maliseet Language
This course is designed for students with little or no knowledge of the language. The aims are listening comprehension and basic oral expression. 6 credit hours.

2106. Intermediate Mi'kmaq

This course is designed to facilitate communication in Mi'kmaq at a functional level. It focuses on listening and speaking skills through basic conversation, class presentations, and the study of grammar, phonics, structure, vocabulary, and word formation. Prerequisite: NATI 1103. 6
credit hours.

2113. Intermediate Maliseet I
This course is essentially oral. Its goal is fluency through conversation, drill, story-telling, class presentations, and audio tapes. Class will also include the study of grammar, structure, vocabulary, and word formation. Prerequisite NATI 1113 and/or basic knowledge of the language. 3 credit hours.

2213. Native Literature
This course introduces students to a broad range of Native literature and Native oral traditions written and translated into English. Works by Native people of diverse First Nations will be carefully studied and critically evaluated. By focusing on a variety of approaches to creative expression,
students will be able to develop an informed understanding of, and appreciation for, the intrinsic value of Native oral and literary traditions. 3 credit hours.

2303. Science, Ethics, and Native People

This course is designed to introduce the student to ethical issues in the archaeology of indigenous peoples. Archaelogy theory, method, interpretation, and interests are examined in relation to ethical considerations. Emphasizes the concerns and point of view of Native people. Topics include the issues of exhumation and public display of skeletal remains and sacred objects, control over access to information, repatriation, the political relevance of indigenous archaelogical research and its role in land claims. 3 credit hours.

2503. Research Strategies in Native Studies
Surveys various research strategies from Anthropology and Sociology and assesses their applicability to, and compatibility with, Native Studies. Considers special protocol and ethical questions in research on Native peoples. Prerequisite: NATI 1006 or by special permission of
Instructor. 3 credit hours.

2603. The Roles of Native Women
This course looks at the traditional role of Native women within Native societies, and how that role has changed over time. It will examine the oppression that Native women have experienced, their responses to it, and the political, economic, social, and spiritual roles they have played both in their own struggles for liberation and in the struggles of their people. Will also look at the lives and voices of prominent Native women, and consider the development of Native women's organizations and the influences of feminism. 3 credit hours.

3103. Intermediate Maliseet II
This course is a continuation of Intermediate Maliseet I in its emphasis on fluency. Oral traditions of storytelling and speech will be featured. The class will be conducted as an immersion class. Prerequisite: NATI 1113 and/or fluency in the language. 3 credit hours.

3123. Maliseet Phonology
This course applies general phonetics to the sound system of the Maliseet language. It concentrates on the oral application of the Maliseet language in the reproduction of sounds. Consonants, vowels, and various orthographies of the language now in use are analysed. Prerequisite: NATI 1116 Maliseet Language and/or fluency in the Maliseet language. A credit may be obtained in either Maliseet Phonology or Mi'kmaq Phonology. 3 credit hours.

3133. Mi'kmaq Phonology
This course applies general phonetics to the sound system of the Mi'kmaq language. It concentrates on the oral application of the Mi'kmaq language in the reproduction of sounds. Consonants, vowels, and various orthographies of the language now in use are analysed. Prerequisite: NATI 1106 Mi'kmaq Language and/or fluency in the Mi'kmaq language. A credit may be obtained in either Mi'kmaq Phonology or Maliseet Phonology. 3 credit hours.

3203. Native Philosophy
This course examines Native cosmologies (world views) and ways of thinking, feeling, and knowing as the foundation of indigenous spiritual, political, social, and economic systems. Defines the continuing existence and vitality of traditional Native philosophy and traces its influence on
Western knowledge. Prerequisite: NATI 1006 or by permission of instructor. 3 credit hours.

3223. Native Environmental Ethics and Ecology
Examines traditional and contemporary environmental values and practices of Indigenous peoples in North America. Considers the impact of Western values, practices, and ecological theories on Indigenous peoples and their environments. Particular attention will be given to the ways in which traditional environmental ethics remain viable in contemporary societies. 3 credit hours.

3313. Contemporary Issues in Native/non-Native Relations
The course will examine social, political, and legal issues in the relations between Aboriginal and Immigrant societies in North America. Discussion will include theoretical approaches and the conflict between theory and reality. 3 credit hours.

3403-43; 3416-46. Topics in Native Studies
This course is directed primarily at upper-level students majoring in Native Studies, and other students seeking to understand and work with Native communities. The specific topic of the course will vary from year to year. Topics such as Native Systems of Law, Oral Traditions, Racism, and Native Health Care may be the focus in any particular year. Students will be
expected to do library and/or field research, and to present and defend the results of their study in class. 6 credit hours.

3413. Mi'kmaq Verbs
This course will analyze verb stems, animate and inanimate transitive and intransitive verbs, and additional structural elements including person, tense, singular, plural, negative and affirmative, in indicative, conjunct and imperative forms. Prerequisite: NATI 1106 Mi'kmaq Language and/or fluency in the Mi'kmaq language. A credit may be obtained in either Mi'kmaq Verbs or Maliseet Verbs. 3 credit hours.

3423. Maliseet Morphology
Morphology is the description of grammatical forms in a language. As such, this course studies the internal structure of words in Maliseet. It looks closely at the smallest units which have the ability to change meaning in a word and defines the grammatical rules that apply. Prerequisite: NATI 3123 Maliseet Phonology or NATI 3443 Maliseet Verbs and/or fluency in the Maliseet language. Credit may be obtained in either Maliseet Morphology or Mi'kmaq Morphology. 3 credit hours.

3433. Mi'kmaq Morphology
Morphology is the description of grammatical forms in a language. As such, this course studies the internal structure of words in Mi'kmaq. It looks closely at the smallest units which have the ability to change meaning in a word and defines the grammatical rules that apply. Prerequisite: NATI 3133 Mi'kmaq Phonology or NATI 3443 Mi'kmaq Verbs and/or fluency in the Mi'kmaq language. Credit may be obtained in either Mi'kmaq Morphology or Maliseet Morphology. 3 credit hours.

3443. Maliseet Verbs
This course will analyze verb stems, animate and inanimate transitive and intransitive verbs, and additional structural elements including person, tense, singular, plural, negative and affirmative, and indicative, conjunct and imperative forms. Prerequisite: NATI 1116 Maliseet Language and/or fluency in the Maliseet language. Credit may be obtained in either Maliseet
Verbs or Mi'kmaq Verbs. 3 credit hours.

3453. Methods for Teaching Adult Immersion
Using research in second-language acquisition, this course identifies specific immersion methods for teaching a Native language as a second language to adults. It emphasizes the oral approach for developing conversational fluency and considers means for assessing students, establishing appropriate goals, and evaluating learning in basic conversation. Fluency in
Maliseet or Mi'kmaq is required. Prerequisite: NATI 4103 or 4113 Native Language Immersion Teaching I or II, or by special permission. 3 credit hours.

3463. Immersion for Kindergarten
This course focuses on strategies for teaching all subject areas in the mother-tongue, particularly to children who come from English-speaking homes. It pays particular attention to methods for achieving fluency, with special attention to teaching pre-primary literacy and numeracy skills. The course will also consider culturally appropriate teaching styles and curriculum planning, in relation to the physical, social, and emotional development of the kindergarten child. Prerequisite: NATI 4103 or NATI 4123 Native Language Immersion Teaching I or II, or by special
permission. 3 credit hours.

3473. Theory and Practice in Native Language Immersion Education
This course analyzes the research of Dr. Jim Cummins and others in language loss, first and second language learning, and immersion education. It focuses also on the strategies, experiences, and educational results of existing Native Language Immersion programmes, particularly those of the Hawaiians, Maoris, Navajos, Mohawks, Okanagans, and Inuit. Fluency in
Maliseet or Mi'kmaq is not required. Prerequisite: NATI 4123 or NATI 4133 Native Language Immersion Teaching I or II, or by special permission. 3 credit hours.

3483. Maliseet/Passamaquoddy Literature and Writing (Immersion)
This course, conducted entirely in Maliseet/Passamaquoddy, will survey and analyze published materials in the language focusing on representative samples from early historic documents and liturgical writings, to dictionaries, recorded oral traditions, and more contemporary documents,
including children's literature and curriculum materials. Particular attention will be paid to content, orthographies, grammatical changes, and historical and contemporary uses for the texts. Students will also gain experience writing short essays in the language. Fluency in Maliseet/Passamaquoddy is essential. Prerequisite: NATI 3123 Maliseet Phonology or NATI 3443 Maliseet Verbs, or special permission of the instructor. Credit may be obtained in either Maliseet/Passamaquoddy Literature and Writing (Immersion) or Mi'kmaq Literature and Writing (Immersion). 3 credit hours.

3493. Mi'kmaq Literature and Writing (Immersion)
This course, conducted entirely in Mi'kmaq, will survey and analyze published materials in the language focusing on representative samples from early historic documents and liturgical writings, to dictionaries, recorded oral traditions, and more contemporary documents, including children's literature and curriculum materials. Particular attention will be paid to content, orthographies, grammatical changes, and historical and contemporary uses for the texts. Students will also gain experience writing short essays in the language. Fluency in Mi'kmaq is essential. Prerequisite: NATI 3133 Mi'kmaq Phonology or NATI 3413 Mi'kmaq Verbs, or by special permission of the instructor. Credit may be obtained for in either Mi'kmaq Literature and Writing (Immersion) or Maliseet/Passamaquody Literature and Writing (Immersion). 3 credit hours.

3503. Advanced Research Strategies in Native Studies
In this course we will examine advanced research methods of particular use in research with indigenous populations. Both qualitative and quantitative methods will be covered, although one or the other may be emphasized in any particular semester. Prerequisite: NATI 2503 Research Strategies in Native Studies.

3603. Native People and the Colonial Experience
This course will look at colonialism as a strategy of imperialism and as a model for understanding North American Native history. Different types of colonialism will be explored, i.e. "classic," "internal," and "neocolonialism," and an emphasis will be placed on the history and continuing impact of colonialism on Indigenous peoples and cultures of North America. The course will also analyze Christian missions, the fur trade, and colonial government policies, as well as exploitation, racism, war, indoctrination, genocide, and cultural appropriation as manifestations of colonialism. Responses to colonialism, including resistance and decolonization, will
also be considered. Prerequisite: NATI 1006. 3 credit hours.

3606. Native History of the Maine/Maritime Region
Explores the cultural and social past of Native peoples through archaeological, oral, visual, and written documentation. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the original cultures of the region and how they have been affected by the colonial experience. Also examines how the
perspective of different writers influences what is recorded and taught as history. While material, pictorial, cartographic, and taped collections in local repositories will provide some of the resources, students will also be required to seek out their own primary sources of information such as elders and undocumented materials. A constant theme of the course will be the relevance of historical research to the contemporary lives of Native peoples in the region. Prerequisite NATI 1006. 6 credit hours.

3613. Native Resistance and Liberation
Focuses on the many historical and contemporary forms of Native resistance to colonization, including violent and non-violent resistance, revitalization movements, and self-determination. Explores liberation theory and its roots in colonial oppression. Analyzes historical and contemporary
resistance movements such as the Ghost Dance Movement, the Riel Rebellion, the fishins, the confrontations at Wounded Knee and Oka, and the movement for decolonization through self-determination. Prerequisite: NATI 3603 or by special permission of the instructor. 3 credit hours.

3623. Native Education and Colonialization
This course will examine traditional forms and philosophies of education in Native societies, and the changes that have occurred since contact and colonization. It will also examine the formal education of Natives by the immigrant society as indoctrination for civilization and assimilation.
It will look closely at residential and day schools in Canada and the United States and the effect they have had on contemporary Native societies and cultures. Special attention will be given to the relationship between education and cultural survival, and the importance for Native people to reclaim and control the education of their children. Prerequisite: NATI 3603 or permission of the instructor. 3 credit hours.

3703. Indigenous and Western Economics and the Idea of "Development"
Examines indigenous economic cultures and the impact of western economic culture on traditional social organization and values. Looks closely at the fur trade, capitalism, industry, technology, and their effects on environment and indigenous cultures. Analyzes the development
of dependency and the idea of "economic development". Alternatives in which Native economic values provide the basis for viable economic endeavours will be considered. 3 credit hours.

3803. Indigenous Cultures and Immigrant Ethnic Minorities
This course examines the different situations and conditions of Indigenous cultures and immigrant ethnic minorities in Canada and the treatment of each by different levels of government. Special attention is given to attitudes, perceptions, and the idea of multiculturalism. Emphasizes the importance of power variables in the examination of immigrant and Indigenous relations in Canadian society. Also examines how immigrant ethnic minorities often form coalitions becoming the "dominant culture" subordinating Indigenous cultures. Prerequisite: NATI 1006 or SOCI 1006. 3 credit hours.

3813. Native Cultural Identity and Cultural Survival

Considers cultural identity and survival within the context of inequality (power, wealth and status). Focuses on the ways in which Native language, group solidarity and community offer "cultural completeness," acting as barriers to assimilation. Historic and contemporary Native cultures
are presented as dynamic and flexible. Prerequisite NATI 1006 or SOCI 1006. 3 credit hours.

3903. Native People and the Law I (CRIM)
The Evolution of the Indian Act — a legal history of the legal-political relationship between Native peoples and Europeans from early contact times to the British North America Act. An analysis of the Indian Act as a document of protection/assimilation in Canadian Government policy. 3 credit hours.

3913. Native People and the Law II (CRIM)

An analysis of court decisions affecting questions of the status of Native peoples, Aboriginal rights, family law, treaty rights, and social relations in Canada and the United States. Prerequisite: NATI 3903. 3 credit hours.

3923. Aboriginal Rights: The Land Question (CRIM)

This course will examine the concept of Aboriginal rights pertaining to land entitlement in Canada and the United States. It will include case studies focusing on the Maritimes, Quebec, MacKenzie Valley, British Columbia, Alaska, and Maine. 3 credit hours.

4006. The Structure of Native Languages in the Maritime Provinces – Mi'kmaq –Maliseet
This course examines the structure of Mi'kmaq and Maliseet from a linguistic and literary perspective. What are the significant features of these languages, and how do they determine the unique cultural outlook of those who speak them? Students explore the structure of Mi'kmaq and Maliseet and examine the differences between these languages and English. The course will also look at problems of translation, and the criteria and methods for the production of texts and other materials in Native language. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Consideration will be given to the student's level of competence in speaking and understanding the Mi'kmaq or Maliseet language. 6 credit hours.

4123. Native Language Immersion Teaching I
This introductory course in immersion teaching focuses on training fluent speakers of Mi'kmaq or Maliseet/Passamaquoddy to teach using their own language as the language of instruction. The course surveys research and practice in Native language immersion education and focuses on the development of culturally relevant curriculum and teaching materials for Mi'kmaq and Maliseet/Passamaquoddy immersion classrooms. Includes also a linguistic component focusing on structures and concepts in each language. Fluency in Mi'kmaq or Maliseet/Passamaquoddy. 3 credit hours.

4133. Native Language Immersion Teaching II
This introductory course in immersion teaching focuses on training fluent speakers of Mi'kmaq or Maliseet/Passamaquoddy to teach using their own language as the language of instruction. The course surveys research and practice in Native language immersion education and focuses on the development of culturally relevant curriculum and teaching materials for Mi'kmaq and Maliseet/Passamaquoddy immersion classrooms. Includes also a linguistic component focusing on structures and concepts in each language. Fluency in Mi'kmaq or Maliseet/Passamaquoddy. NATI 4123 or the permission of the instructor is normally a prerequisite for NATI 4133. 3 credit hours.

4143. Methods in Immersion Teaching
This course focuses on approaches to teaching in a full immersion setting for the daycare, nursery, and kindergarten levels, as well as the primary grades (Ages 2-8). It surveys standard teaching philosophies and methodologies for their relevance to the cultural, social, physical, and cognitive learning needs of young Aboriginal children. Considers goals and strategies for teaching both basic subject matter and Native language skills in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing. Fluency in Maliseet or Mi'kmaq is required. Prerequisite: NATI 4103 or 4113, Native Language Immersion Teaching I or II, or by special permission. 3 credit hours.

4153. Curriculum Planning for the Immersion Classroom
The focus of this course is curriculum design for classrooms using Mi'kmaq or Maliseet as the medium of instruction. Special attention will be given to principles in child development, first and second language learning, Aboriginal learning and teaching styles, and current theory in curriculum development as it relates to the Native language immersion classroom. Students will gain experience using their own languages to build units and long-range plans that are both developmentally sound and culturally relevant. Prerequisite: Fluency in Maliseet or Mi'kmaq and NATI 4103 or NATI 4123 Native Language Immersion Teaching I or II, or by special
permission. 3 credit hours.

4413. Maliseet/Passamaquoddy History (Immersion)

This course, conducted entirely in Maliseet/Passamaquoddy, will focus on the pre-contact and post-contact history of the Maliseet/Passamaquoddy people. Texts used for the course will be materials written in the language, both manuscript and published sources. The course will rely also on oral traditions told by visiting elders. Students will be expected to research and write papers in the language on selected topics.Fluency in Maliseet/Passamaquoddy is essential. Prerequisite: NATI 3483 Maliseet/Passamaquoddy Literature (Immersion), or by special permission
of the Instructor. A credit may be obtained in either Maliseet/Passamaquoddy History (Immersion) or Mi'kmaq History (Immersion). 3 credit hours.

4423. Mi'kmaq History (Immersion)
This course, entirely conducted in Mi'kmaq, will focus on the pre-contact and post-contact history of the Mi'kmaq people. Texts used for the course will be materials written in the language, both manuscript and published sources. The course will rely also on oral traditions told by visiting elders. Students will be expected to research and write papers in the language on selected topics. Fluency in Mi'kmaq is essential. Prerequisite: NATI 3493 Mi'kmaq Literature and Writing (Immersion) or by special permission of the instructor. Credit may be obtained in either Mi'kmaq History (Immersion) or Maliseet/Passamaquoddy History (Immersion). 3 credit hours.

4433. Practicum in Early Childhood or Adult Immersion

This practicum in either an early childhood, kindergarten, or adult immersion classroom will allow the student to develop and practice skills learned in the immersion methods courses. Fluency in Maliseet or Mi'kmaq is essential. Prerequisite: Completion of twelve half-credit courses in the Native Language Immersion Teacher Training. 3 credit hours.

4506/4503. Independent Study
This is a third or fourth-year course of study under the supervision of a member of the faculty of Native Studies. It is arranged with the consent of the Director of the Programme and in consultation with the professor. Enrolment is restricted to students who wish to pursue an area of special interest. 6 or 3 credit hours.

4613. Archaeology of First Nations' History

This seminar course will address the misplaced histories of First Nations in Canada. Students will compare standard accounts of Canadian history with facts and accounts that have been kept out of mainstream sources. Students will be expected to research a particular topic within the context of Canadian history, identify what has been left out, and explicate why this is likely the case. Students will also learn to access a broad variety of sources including archives, oral traditions, and internet sources, and to develop the capacity for evaluating and reinterpreting standard accounts and articulating new understandings. Prerequisite: NATI 1006.

Cross-Listed Courses


ANTH 2313 Archaeology of Early Societies – The Americas
ANTH 3003-3153 Area Ethnography
HIST 2813 The Canadian and American Frontiers to 1812
HIST 2823 The Canadian and American Frontiers 1812-1900
HMRT 2003 Introduction to Human Rights
POLS 3506 Human Rights in International Relations and Foreign Policy
RELG 3473 Native American Religions
RELG 3483 Mi'kmaq and Maliseet Religions
SOCI 2013 Research Methods
SOCI 2023 Introduction to Statistics

NOTE: Not all courses listed are offered each year. Please
consult with the Director for more information about current and
planned course offerings.

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