Sociology 2443
Race and Ethnic Relations

This course will explore a number of related themes in the analysis of race relations and racism, ethnicity, and the politics of identity in contemporary industrial societies. A central focus of this course is on how issues of 'race' and the racialization of certain groups within society are conceptualized in both political and academic discourse, and how these understandings come to explain and justify inequality, and how they impact on social policies and institutions.

We will begin with neo-Marxist analysis of the rise of New Right Politics and racialized hostility. Contradictions between constitutional equality rights and evidence of systemic disadvantages for racial and ethnic minorities in Britain and Canada will be examined in the areas of criminal justice, education, and social work, together with analysis of methodological problems that arise in efforts to measure the extent of racial and ethnic discrimination. The third section will focus on the discourses of culture and identity politics, the practices of defining and appropriating "the Other", the politics of resistance, and struggles by socially subordinated peoples to reclaim and reconstitute their identities.

The topic of race and ethnic relations encompass complex issues that arouse intense and conflicting emotions. Sociological theories have become inextricably part of these struggles. The objective of this course is not to take sides in the debates, but to make visible the assumptions embedded in different perspectives, and the practices that constitute both the discourses and the evidence presented.


Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies; University of Birmingham, England 1982 The Empire Strikes Back. Race and Racism in 70s Britain reprinted 1992. Routledge (photocopied text in bookstore)

Satzewich, Vic (ed) 1998 Racism and Social Inequality in Canada. Concepts, Controversies & Strategies of Resistance Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.


Amit-Talai, Vered and Caroline Knowles 1996 Resituating Identities. The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press (Chapters 1,4 6, placed on reserve in library

Other supplementary readings suggested in detailed course outline indicate sources of lecture materials. Those marked with an asterisk will be placed on reserve in the library


Three critical reflections on course material to correspond with main themes in the course. (Expected length 3-4 pages) Value 10% each

a) Conceptualizing racism
b) structured inequality of racialized minorities
c) cultural identity politics

Each critical reflection should draw on core ideas from readings and lectures and reflect on their relevance for understanding personal experience of racial and ethnic relations, or media presentations in television or film, popular magazines, or news coverage of current events.

Major Research Paper on selected issue (Due March 14) Value 40% Select one chapter from either the Satzewich or the CCCS text as the starting point for further research. Find three additional academic sources that use different perspectives and information to study the issue. Compare in detail the theoretical assumptions or ways of thinking about race and ethnic relations used by these authors, the kinds of evidence on which they draw, and how they complement or challenge each other. Conclude by reflecting briefly on how these articles might influence contemporary politics or struggles in race or ethnic relations. Note that in evaluating the paper, greater weight will be given to how clearly you can present the authors assumptions and arguments than to description of evidence.

Option: Groups of 2-4 students may opt to do a class presentation based on one chapter from either CCCS or Satzewich. Each group is expected to draw on a variety of sources to bring the issue alive for the class, and to lead debate on social policy concerns for Canada. A group grade will be assigned for the presentation, worth 20%. Individual participants will also get an individual grade of 20% for a written submission of his or her research contribution to the presentation. Doe date for the presentation will be the week in which that issue is scheduled for class reading.

Final examination 30%



a) Introduction: Interrelation of race, class, ethnic and gender experience

- Bourgeault, R. 1983 "The Indian, The Metis, and the Fur Trade. Class, Sexism and Racism in the Transition from 'Communism' to 'Capitalism' Studies in Political Economy Vol 12: 45-79 (case study)

- Alfred, Gerald 1995 Heeding the Voices of our Ancestors, Kahnawake Mohawk Politics and the Rise of Native Nationalism Toronto: Oxford University Press Ch 2 "People of the Flint"

b) Introduction to Neo-Marxist Perspective
State Racism: Colonialism, international migration
Managing the Crises of Capitalism: 'Class' constituted as 'race'
Critique of 'culture' as explanation

- CCCS Ch 1: Solomos et. al. 1982 "The Organic Crisis of British Capitalism and race; experience of the seventies" pp 9-39

Satzewich Ch 4: Alan Simmons. Racism and Immigration Policy" 87-114 Satzewich Ch 5: Peter Li "The Market Value and social value of race 115-130


a) Controversial conceptions of 'race' and 'ethnicity'

Overview of themes:
- Solomos, J. and L. Back 1994 "Conceptualizing Racisms: Social Theory, Politics and Research" Sociology vol 28, No. 1 (February):143-161

* Robert Miles and Rudy Torres 1996 Does "Race" Matter? Transatlantic Perspectives on Racism after "Race Relations" pp 24-47. Chapter 1 in Amit-Talai, Vered and Caroline Knowles Resituating Indentities. The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.

-Satzewich Ch 1: "Race, Racism and Racialization: Contested Concepts" 25-46

b) The official discourses of racism

* Teun A. van Dijk 1993 Elite Discourse and Racism particularly Ch 5

Satzewich ch 11: Della Kirkham "The Reform Party of Canada: A Discourse on Race, Ethnicity and Equality" pp 243-268


Problems in measurement of race/ethnic inequality:

* Synnott, Anthony and David Howes 1996 "Canada's Visible Minorities: Identity and Representation" pp 137-160. Chapter 6 in Amit-Talai, Vered and Caroline Knowles Resituating Indentities. The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.

b) Common-sense Racism
Colonial view of 'primitive' and 'savage' black sexuality; pathologizing black and immigrant cultures
CCCS Ch 2: Lawrence, E "Just plain common sense: the 'root' of racism pp 47-94


a) Economic recession and white racism

Rubin, L. 1994 Families on the Fault Line part 3

Satzewich Ch 10: Edite Noivo "Neither "Ethnic Heroes" nor "Racial Villains": Inter-Minority Group Racism" 223-242

Satzewich Ch 14: Tanya Das Gupta "Anti-Racism and the Organized Labour Movement" pp 315-334

b) theories of working-class racism

Satzewich Ch 9: Thomas Dunk: "Racism, Ethnic Prejudice, Whiteness and the Working Class" pp 201-222

WEEK 5 - 6

a) Theories of Black "pathology" colonial destruction v culture of resistance pathologizing family forms; rastafarianism and youth rebellion

- CCCS Ch 3: Lawrence E. "In the abundance of water the fool is thirsty: Sociology and black pathology" - Staples, B. 1986 "Just Walk on By. A Black man ponders his power to alter public space" MS Sept. 54 and 88

b) Policing racial minorities black as 'folk devil'; community policing and surveillance crime constituted as culture

- CCCS ch 4 Gilroy, P. "Police and Thieves" 143-176
- Satzewich ch 7: Carl E. James "Up to no Good": Black on the Streets and Encountering Police" 157-176

c) Natives and Canadian Justice
- Mannette (ed) 1992 Elusive Justice. Beyond the Marshall Inquiry

- Satzewich ch 8: Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System 177-200



a) Education for Minorities
issues of equal opportunity; blaming the victims; multiculturalism

- CCCS ch 5: Carby "Schooling in Babylon" 183-210

- Satzewich Ch 6: S. Davies & N. Guppy "Race and Canadian Education" 131-156 - Satzewich ch 13: George Dei "The Politics of Educational Change: Taking Anti-Racism Education Seriously" pp 299-314

* Jackson, Nancy S. 1987 "Ethnicity and Vocational Choice" 166-182 in Jon Young (ed) Breaking the Mosaic. Ethnic Identities in Canadian Schooling Toronto: Garamond - Ng, Roxana "Ethnicity, Schooling and the Social Division of Labour. A Response to Jackson" pp 183-189

b) Biases in School curriculum: Jon Young (ed) 1987 Breaking the Mosaic Section 2: "Curriculum as Materials" 75-152 Manicom "Ideology and Multicultural Curriculum: Deconstructing Elementary School Texts" (response by Thomas) 75-107 Lewis "Native Images in Children's Books" (response by Lane) 108-52 Ng "Ethnic and Gender Relations as Constitutive Practices" 212-215 Section 4: Curriculum as Policy 224-280 Dehli "'Ethnic', 'Parent', 'Community': The proper channelling of education Politics" 224-239 Martel "The Canadian Constitution & Power Structures in Minority Education" 247-275 Aoki "Perspectives and Power. A Response to Martel" 276-280


a) State practices and the creation of "Immigrant Woman" as labour force category

Ng, Roxana 1986 The Politics of Community Services. Immigrant Women, Class and the State Toronto: Garamond

Satzewich ch 5: Peter S. Li "The Market Value and Social Value of Race" 115-130

b) Social services for minorities

* Stubbs, Paul 1985 "The Employment of black social workers: from 'ethnic sensitivity' to anti-racism?" Critical Social Policy vol 12 (Spring):6-27

Henry, Francis, Tator, C, Mattis, W., Rees, t. 1995 The Colour of Democracy, Racism in Canadian Society Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Co.


a) Feminist theory and White feminist Racism triple oppressions of gender-race-class different herstories; feminist eurocentrism

CCCS Ch 6 Carby "White Women Listen: Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" 212-235

- Arat-Koc, S. 1989 "In the privacy of our own home: Foreign domestic workers as solution to the crisis in the domestic sphere in Canada Studies in Political Economy 28 (Spring):33-55 - Calliste, A 1994 "Race, Gender and Canadian Immigration Policy: Blacks form the Caribbean 1900-1932" Journal of Canadian Studies 28,4(Winter): 131-147 - hooks, bel 1992 Black Looks, Race and Representation esp chs 4,5,6,7

b) Women's oppression and resistance

CCCS ch 7 Parmar "Gender, race and class: Asian women in resistance" 236-275

Nicholas, Andrea Bear 1994 "Colonialism and the Struggle for Liberation: The Experience of Maliseet Women" UNB RD vol 43:223-239


a) Hegemonic Discourse: Defining and Appropriating the 'Other'

* Said, E 1981 Covering Islam, How the media and the Experts Determine How we see the rest of the world New York: Pantheon esp. Ch 3 "Knowledge and Power; knowledge and Interpretation"

Dyke, N. 1992 "Negotiating the Indian Problem" pp 132-140 in Miller, D (eds) The First Ones reprint from Cultures 6,1 (1986):31-41

b) Presentation of minorities in media and scholarship bel hooks 1992 Black Looks. Race and Representation ch 2 "Eating the Other"

Francis, D. 1992 The Imaginary Indian. The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture Vancouver: Arsenel Pulp Press

Satzewich Ch 3: Stephen Small "The Contours of Racialization: Structures, Representation and Resistance in the United states" 69-86

Satzewich Ch 12: J. Rick Ponting "Racism and Stereotyping of First Nations" 269-298


a) Concept of "Culture" as problematic critique of essentialism - primordial emotional attachment ethnicity as active construction

Eller, J. and Coughlan R. 1993 "The Poverty of primordialism: the demystification of ethnic attachments Ethnic and Racial Studies vol 16, no 2, 183-130 Rorty, A. 1994 "The Hidden Politics of Cultural Identification" Political Theory 22,1 (February):152-166 Marable, M. 1993 "Beyond racial identity politics; towards a liberation theory for multicultural democracy" Race and Class 35,1:113-130

b) Whiteness as ethnicity

CCCS Ch 8 Gilroy, P. "'Steppin' out of Babylon"

Pryor, Edward T, Gustave J. Goldman, Michael J Sheridan and Pamela M. White 1992 "Measuring Ethnicity in 'Canadian': an evolving indigenous category? Ethnic and Racial Studies 15,2 (April): 214-235

Rubin, L. 1994 Families on the Fault Line Ch 9 and 10

bel hooks 1992 Black Looks. Race and Representation Ch 11 "Representations of whiteness in the Black imagination"


a) Political structures in divided societies

Horowitz, Donald L. 1993 "Conflict and the Incentives to political accommodation" pp 173-188 in Keogh Dermot, and Haltzel, M.H. (eds) Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation

* Amit-Talai, Vered "The Minority Circuit: Identity Politics and the Professionalization of Ethnic Activism pp 89-114. Chapter 4 in Amit-Talai, Vered and Caroline Knowles Resituating Indentities. The Politics of Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press.

b) Colonialism and the Destruction/Distortion of Culture

Boldt, M. 1993 Surviving as Indians. The Challenge of Self-Government Toronto: U. of Toronto Press Ch 5 "Culture"

Mander, J 1991 In the Absence of the Sacred. The Failure of Technology and the Survival of the Indian Nations San Francisco: Sierra Club Books "Colonization via television

c) struggle and division
Alfred, G. 1995 Heeding the Voices of our Ancestors. Kajnawake Mohawk Politics and the Rise of Native Nationalism Toronto: Oxford U. P. Ch 6,7,8

Hornborg, A 1994 "Environmentalism, ethnicity, and sacred places: Reflections on Modernity, discourse and power" Canadian Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 31,3 (Aug.):245-267

Sawchuk, J 1992 "The Metis, Non-Status Indians and the New Aboriginality" in Miller (ed) The First Ones Reprint from Canadian Ethnic Studies 17,2 (1985):135-146

Nicholas, A. 1994 "Colonialism and the struggle for liberation: The Experience of Maliseet Women"


a) Ethnic nationalism, culture and Identity Politics

Denitch, Bogdan 1994 Ethnic Nationalism. The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press

Pavlowitch, Stevan K. 1994 "Who is "Balkanizing" Whom? The Misunderstandings Between the Debris of Yugoslavia and an Unprepared West" Daedalus vol 123, no 2 (Spring): 203-223

Ahmen, Akbar S. 1995 "'Ethnic Cleansing': A metaphor for our time?" Ethnic and Racial Studies 18,1 (January): 1-25

Salee, Daniel 1995 "Identities in conflict: the Aboriginal question and the politics of recognition in Quebec" Ethnic and Racial Studies 18,2 (April): 277-314

Dr. Sylvia Hale
Sociology 1006 Introduction to Sociology
Sociology 2013 Research Methods
Sociology 2443 Race and Ethnic Relations
Sociology 2633 Sociology of the Family
Sociology 4023 Honours Workshop

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